Increased early mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty in patients with socioeconomic disadvantage: a report from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register
Background and purpose — Socioeconomic status is associated with the outcome of major surgery. We investigated the association of socioeconomic status with the risk of early mortality and readmissions after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Patients and methods — We obtained information on income, education, immigration, and cohabiting status as well as comorbidities of 166,076 patients who underwent primary THA due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) from the
Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register, the Swedish National Inpatient Register and Statistics Sweden. Multivariable Cox regression models were fitted to estimate the adjusted risk of mortality or readmissions within 90 days after index surgery.
Results — Compared with patients on a low income, the adjusted risk of 30-day mortality was considerably lower in patients on a high income (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3–0.7) and in those on a medium income (HR 0.7, CI 0.6–0.9). Similar risk reductions were found for the endpoint 90-day mortality. Patients with a high income had a lower adjusted risk of readmission for cardiovascular reasons than those with a low income (HR 0.7, CI 0.6–0.9), as had those with a higher level of education (adjusted HR
0.7, CI 0.6–0.9). Patients with higher socioeconomic status had a lower degree of comorbidities than socioeconomically disadvantaged patients. However, adjusting for socioeconomic confounders in multivariable models only marginally influenced the predictive ability of the models, as expressed by their area under the curve.
Interpretation — Income and level of education are strongly associated with early mortality and readmissions after primary THA, and both parameters are closely connected to health status. Since adjustment for socioeconomic confounders only marginally improved the predictive ability of multivariable regression models our findings indicate that comorbidities may under certain circumstances serve as an acceptable proxy measure of socioeconomic background.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Rüdiger J Weiss, Johan Kärrholm, Ola Rolfson, Nils P Hailer
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