Short Author Guidelines

Submission of manuscripts

Manuscripts should be submitted online, Authors are encouraged to provide the names, addresses, and e-mail of potential reviewers. Note the following points:

a. The manuscript should be prepared according to Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals ( American spelling is preferred. Manuscript's total word count should not exceed 3 300, including Abstracts (max 250 words) but excluding title page, figure and table legends, and references. The word count should be added on the title page.

b. Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that it has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The authors should provide a statement about previous submissions and reports that might be regarded as duplicate publication of the same or a similar paper. Copies of that study should be submitted with the paper.

c. Authors should provide a description of their individual contributions to the study.

d. Interventional studies (defined by human participants beeing prospectively assigned to 1 or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes) should be registered in a public trials register, and the registration ID should be presented under Ethics. In addition, manuscripts presenting randomized trials should comply with the CONSORT statement, ( The study protocol, approved by the appropriate ehtics committee, a completed CONSORT checklist and flowchart should be submitted together with the manuscript. Animal in vivo experiments should comply with ARRIVE and a completed checklist ( and a copy of the study protocol should be submitted together with the manuscript.

e.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of Interventional studies should comply with the PRISMA-statement ( and the PRISMA-checklist and flowchart should be appended to the manuscript. For systematic reviews and meta-analysis of observational studies the MOOSE-studies checklist and flowchart ( should be used.

f. Manuscripts presenting results on diagnostic accuary should comply with the STARD-statement( and the STARD-checklist and flowchart should be appended to the manuscript.

g. Reports of observational studies should comply with the STROBE-statement ( and the STROBE checklist should be appended to the manuscript.

h. Extensive tables, complementary figures and other explanatory material should be given as Supplementary data which will be available in the online version of article.

i. All documents with original data of relevance to the submitted manuscript should be stored and be retrievable on request for a minimum of 10 years. Authors are encouraged to include a copy of raw data in electronic form and/or make these data available via the internet.

Manuscript layout


The title should include information on the results of the investigation, including the number of patients, average follow-up, and animal or cadaver experiments. The first name, middle initial(s), and last name of each author should be given with department affiliations as well as the name and e-mail of the corresponding author.


The abstract should not exceed 250 words. It should consist of 4 parts: Background and purpose, Patients/material/animals and methods, Results and Interpretation.


The introduction should focus on the state of knowledge at the beginning of the study. The aims and main hypothesis of the study should be stated clearly. Only in exceptional cases should it exceed 1 typewritten page. Case reports. These should be short, include the Case history and Discussion without an Introduction.

Patients/material/animals and methods

The selection of subjects and the inclusion or exclusion criteria should be described. Subjects who declined to participate, withdrawals and those with incomplete follow-up should be accounted for. Describe in detail how the measurements were made and the techniques used.


All statistical methods should be mentioned. Unusual methods should be referenced. The tests should be two-sided, unless the use of one-sided tests is justified. No data should be removed, imputed, weighted, adjusted or trimmed unless they are specifically described and justified and its consequences are given.
Hypothesis tests (p-values). These tests should be used, in combination with a defined effect size and when statistical power has been considered. Give p-values with real numbers, if these are greater than 0.001 (1 digit except zeros), otherwise use ‘p < 0.001’. Do not use ‘ns’, ‘p > 0.05’ or asterisks. In most instances, the 95% confidence intervals should be given, especially in exploratory analyses and when estimating the effects or differences.

Ethics, registration, funding and potential conflicts of interest

Approval by the local etics committee should be stated with date of issue and registration number. A registration ID should be given. Funding and potential conflicts of interest should be declared.


Do not give the same data in more than one way. When summarizing the data, always include measures of variability and the number of subjects. Give the median and range—e.g., 60 (35–70) years, the mean and standard deviation—59 (SD 15) years, and the frequencies for nominal data. The results of matched data should be given in relevant form (e.g., the distribution of pairwise differences). Percentages should not be used if the sample size is less than 100.


This section should contain a critical discussion of the results—e.g., the quality of the data (selection and information bias) and adequacy of the statistical analysis (confounding bias). It should also assess the relevant literature for or against the findings and if possible, the conclusions as regards clinical application or further research. Discuss, do not recapitulate, your results.


Each table should be self-explanatory, with an adequate title and a logical presentation of the data. Abbreviate words in the columns and explain in footnotes. Each column heading for numerical data should include the unit of measurement. Use SI units. Avoid unnecessary decimals! It is seldom advisable to use more than 2 digits for biologic measurements.

Digital illustrations

Should be used. A scanned picture or digital photo should usually be about 50 × 7c0 mm with a resolution of 300 dpi, which gives an uncompressed file size of 2 MiB in color and 500 KiB in gray-scale. A black and white drawing or graph may be scanned in 800 dpi bitmap, i.e. 1 bit TIFF. A 70 × 70 mm graph gives a file size of 600 KiB The preferred format is a TIFF-file. The resolution of web illustrations (gif) is usually too poor. Color photos should be in CMYK colors. The cost of color will be paid by Acta. Embed moderately JPEG compressed versions of your illustrations in your online submitted PDF file. These illustrations will not be used for production. Highlights, arrows and letters may be added to digital photos but keep a clean version of the photo for the layout process. Acta prefers to add these as a separate layer. For digital graphs, use a graphics program that can export EPS-files. Avoid frames around diagrams, diagrams with perspective drawing, and bar graphs or histograms (use tables). Symbols should be consistent throughout a series of figures. Each axis should be horizontally labelled, with a description of the variable it represents. Use sans serif letters (Arial or Helvetica). Make diagrams in black-and-white with gray or color areas, but avoid complex patterns.

Authors contributions

Describe in short what each author did (initials).


Technical help or other help may be acknowledged.


We prefer the references to be cited by name and year (chronologically) of publication in the text instead of giving their numbers, i.e. one author, two authors or author et al. and year. Thus, the list of references should be given in alphabetical order.


Create an Adobe Portable Document File (PDF) of your full manuscript. You will need the Adobe Acrobat Writer Program or similar PDF creator program installed on your computer. We recommend that you write your manuscript as a Microsoft Word .le and embed all images, tables, figures etc. within the one file. Now convert the Microsoft Word Document to a PDF file by choosing the appropriate icon in the task bar of the Microsoft Word Application. Alternatively, right hand click on the icon of your manuscript file and choose, convert to Adobe PDF. If you do not have the Adobe PDF writer installed on your computer, you can use the ‘try it for free’ feature found on the Adobe website at this address: Important: Please line number the Microsoft Word document before converting to PDF by following the procedure below.

Insert line numbers:
1. Switch to print layout view.
2. Do one of the following:
• To add line numbers to the entire document, click Select All on the Edit menu.
• To add line numbers to part of a document, select the text you want to number.
• To add line numbers to existing sections, click in a section or select multiple sections.
3. On the File menu, click Page Setup, and then click the Layout tab.
4. If you’re adding line numbers to part of a document, click Selected text in the Apply to box.
5. Click Line Numbers.
6. Select the Add line numbering check box, and then select the options you want.

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