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The Manuscript

Submission of manuscripts

Manuscripts should be submitted online (https://www.manuscriptmanager.net/ao). Submit a double line spaced and line numbered Word file including tables and figures at the end of the manuscript. Authors are encouraged to provide the names, addresses, and e-mail of potential reviewers.

Note the following points:
a. A manuscript's total word count should not exceed 3,300 (including Abstract (max. 250 words) but excluding title page, figure and table legends, and references). The word count should be added on the title page. American spelling is preferred.

b. Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that it has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The authors should provide a statement about previous publications that are similar to the submitted study. Copies of such studies should be submitted with the paper.

c. Interventional studies, i.e. clinical trials (defined by human participants being prospectively assigned to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes) should be registered in a public trials register before the enrolment of the first participant. A data sharing plan should be included, see recommendations by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, www.icmje.org. The registration ID and the data sharing plan should be presented under the subtitle ‘Ethics, registration, data sharing plan, funding, and potential conflicts of interest’ (after subtitle 'Statistics'). In addition, manuscripts presenting randomized trials should comply with the CONSORT statement (www.consort-statement.org). The study protocol, approved by the appropriate ethics committee, a completed CONSORT checklist and flowchart should be submitted together with the manuscript. Animal in vivo experiments should comply with ARRIVE and a completed checklist (www.nvcr3s.org.uk/arrive-guidelines) and a copy of the study protocol should be submitted together with the manuscript.

d. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventional studies should comply with the PRISMA statement (www.prisma-statement.org), and the PRISMA checklist and flowchart should be appended to the manuscript. For systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies the MOOSE checklist and flowchart (www.equator-network.org) should be used.

e. Manuscripts presenting results on diagnostic accuracy should comply with the STARD-statement (www.stard-statement.org), and the STARD checklist and flowchart should be appended to the manuscript.

f. Reports of observational studies should comply with the STROBE-statement (www.strobe-statement.org) and the STROBE checklist should be appended to the manuscript.

g. Extensive tables, complementary figures, and other explanatory material should be given as Supplementary data which will be available in the online version of the article.

Manuscript layout

Title
The title should include information on the results of the investigation, including the number of patients, average follow-up, and animal or cadaver experiments. Acta prefers titles that are expressive rather than neutral. The first name, middle initial(s), and last name of each author should be given with department affiliations as well as the e-mail of the corresponding author.

Abstract
The abstract should not exceed 250 words. It should consist of 4 parts: Background and purpose (motive for the study, i.e. why was it done), Patients/material/animals and methods, Results, and Interpretation.

Introduction
The introduction should focus on the state of knowledge at the beginning of the study. The aims and main hypothesis of the study should be stated clearly. Only in exceptional cases should it exceed 300 words.

Case reports
These should be short, include the Case history and Discussion without an Introduction.

Patients/material/animals and methods
The selection of subjects and the inclusion or exclusion criteria should be described. Subjects who declined to participate, withdrawals and those with incomplete follow-up should be accounted for. Describe in detail how the measurements were made and the techniques used.

Statistics
See separate heading.

Ethics, registration, data sharing plan, funding, and potential conflicts of interest
Approval by the local ethics committee should be stated with date of issue and registration number. Clinical trials should have been registered in a public trials register, including a data sharing plan, before start of the trial. Give registration number. Funding and potential conflicts of interest should be declared. See also above, point c.

Results
Do not give the same data in more than 1 way. When summarizing the data, always include measures of variability and the number of subjects. Give the median and range—e.g., 60 years (35–70), the mean and standard deviation—59 years (SD 15), and the frequencies for nominal data. The results of matched data should be given in relevant form (e.g., the distribution of pairwise differences).
Percentages should not be used if the sample size is less than 100. Give numbers in digits in stead of words, even if n<10 or at start of sentence (4 in stead of four, and 4th instead of fourth).
Present confidence intervals as 2.2(CI 0.6-2.4), define 95% confidence interval as CI under "Statistics". Give p-values with only 1 numeral (except 0), e.g. “p-value=0.893” should be “p-value 0.9”. P-values are unnecessary when confidence intervals are used.
Refrain from meaningless decimals, e.g. rewrite “RR 5.86 (CI 2.03 – 18.38)” to “RR 6 (CI 2-18)”.

Discussion
This section should contain a critical discussion of the results—e.g., the quality of the data (selection and information bias) and adequacy of the statistical analysis (confounding bias). It should also assess the relevant literature for or against the findings and if possible, the conclusions as regards clinical application or further research. Discuss, do not recapitulate, your results.

Tables
Each table should be self-explanatory, with an adequate title and a logical presentation of the data. Abbreviate words in the columns and explain in footnotes. Each column heading for numerical data should include the unit of measurement. Use SI units. Avoid unnecessary decimals! It is seldom advisable to use more than 2 digits for biologic measurements.

Figures
A scanned picture or digital photo should usually be about 85 mm (i.e. 1000 pixels) wide with a resolution of 300 DPI (dots per inch), which gives a square picture an uncompressed file size of 4.5 MiB in color and 1 MiB in gray-scale. A black and white drawing or graph may be scanned in 800 DPI bitmap, i.e. 1 bit TIFF. The preferred format is a TIFF-file. The resolution of WEB illustrations (gif) is usually too poor. Color photos should be in CMYK colors. The cost of color will be paid by Acta.
Highlights, arrows and letters may be added to digital photos but keep a clean version of the photo for the layout process. Acta prefers to add these as a separate layer.
For digital graphs, use a graphics program that can export vectorized graphs as EMF, EPS or PDF files. Avoid frames around diagrams, diagrams with perspective drawing, and bar graphs or histograms (use tables). Symbols should be consistent throughout a series of figures. Each axis should be horizontally labeled, with a description of the variable it represents. Axes should be equal in length to make the diagrams quadratic. Use sans serif letters (Arial or Helvetica). Make diagrams in color but avoid complex patterns.

Author contributions
Describe in short what each author did (initials).

Acknowledgments
Technical help or other help may be acknowledged.

References
The number of references typically does not exceed 25 (except for meta-analyses or review articles). We prefer the references to be cited by name and year (chronologically) of publication in the text instead of giving their numbers, i.e. 1 author, 2 authors or author et al. and year. Thus, the list of references should be given in alphabetical order. In the reference list all authors should be included. References with same author and year should be separated by adding a letter to the year (a, b, c...) in the list and the text.

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